History of Religion Paper

Recognition and Examination of the Rapid Growth of Paganism in Canada.

By Philip Godin

When examining the religious history of Canada, the focus is primarily put on Christian, Catholic, Islamic, and Eastern religious denominations like Buddhism, and Taoism. There is a rising group of individuals who worship within a growing community that has really only risen since the 1960’s. This religious group is not actually new, rather they are revivals of religions that were essentially eliminated by the encroachment and assimilation of the more organized religions previously listed. The Canadian government 2011 National Household survey recorded 25,495 Pagans responding.[1] This is quintuple the amount who registered in 1991.[2] Pagan is a word that suggests the Vikings of premillennial Europe, the Druidic practitioners of Celtic and Pictish traditions of the British isle, and the witches of the medieval period. This is not far from the truth. These religions no longer exist in their original forms, but there are individuals who have decided to revive them, and whom believe in the moral philosophies and rituals described by the lore that remains.[3] With the rapid development of these sects within Canada, I intend to examine some of the historical impacts that have led to their now rapid growth while most other religions in Canada are in decline in the face of secularism.

The Religions: Their Values and Origins

There are many religions who make up the Pagan demographic. To examine all of them in the breadth of this paper is impossible. I will instead examine four groups who exist under the Pagan umbrella term: Wicca, Astaru, Druids, and Technopagans.

“Reclaiming witchcraft is not specifically Wiccan (though some members may use this term) in terms of linage; however, founders of the tradition were influenced by the ritual process and worldview of Garderian Wicca. Reclaiming developed first in the San Francisco area in the 1980’s following the writings and work of Starhawk.”[4]

Wicca is the largest recorded demographic of pagans in Canada; they account for more than forty percent of the total identified Pagans.[5] Depending on the subsect of Wicca one practices, the focus of belief could be on Goddess, magic, community, or a combination thereof. The Wiccan Church of Canada was founded in 1979 by Richard and Tamarra James on the foundations of Gardnairian and Alexandrian traditions.[6] They developed a practice separate from previous devotions that held personal experience paramount called Odeyssian.[7] The incorporation of an individual into this church is an extensive process. It takes dedication and a required comprehension of the rituals, practices, and lore of the devotion. Wicca is probably the most popularized of pagan religions. It is very prevalent throughout pop-culture of the 1990’s and 2000’s, appearing in programs such as Buffy the Vampire Slayer and True Blood. Most of the traditional ritual materials are available online and literature is readily available and easily acquired from various vendors. Wicca is associated with “black magic”, particularly with the concepts of hexes or curses. From what I can glean from various sources is that most of the major organized covens do not condone the practice of such rituals and most of such magic is performed by independents or individuals who do not subscribe to the common themes and beliefs of most practitioners. There is room for atheist witches in this organization, those who do not subscribe to the idea of a goddess, but consider the practices metaphoric in nature.[8]

The Astaru, also known by themselves as Heathens, focus on the practices of pre-Christian Germanic and Norse traditions. Much of the body of knowledge that this religion is built around comes from Anglo recreations of Icelandic sagas, Norse mythology, and Germanic Folklore.[9] The community of practitioners have often drifted from other earth based religions such as Wicca or Druidry; the philosophy and tangible practices from the communal trances and gods, who are individuals with deeds, personalities, and flaws rather than intangible forces, are often the catalysts for this transition.[10] Worship is guided through seiðr or spámaðr whom are wise women or prophets respectively.[11] These individuals are responsible for interpreting the outcomes of neo-shamanic rituals that practitioners take part in. There is also a focus on personal development and encouragement to engage in a craft that would be considered native to the original practitioners of the faith. There are three different types of Heathenry: Universalists are inclusive of all potential members, Centrists/Tribalists who require devotion of time and energy invested into learning lore and strict adherence to Heathen values, and Folkish who require strict racial backgrounds to be a part of the community.[12]

Druidry is an earth based religion and could be used to define the term earth based. It is a reclamation of the Celtic Druidic tradition based on the romanticisms in literature of the 18th and 19th century.[13] Though it has its roots in the druidic revival in Britain some 300 years ago, the current incarnation spawned from the Freemason traditions which were responsible for most of the occult exploration prior to the 1960’s in North America.[14] [15] Ross Nickels founded the Order of Bards, Ovates, and Druids(OBOD) in 1964 after various religious influences passed away and he became disenfranchised with the new leadership in his current tradition.[16] Druidism is an environmentalist religion that focuses on attunement with nature and the gathering , retention, and sharing of knowledge. Of the religions examined in this paper, Druids have the most structure initiation process. Both the OBOD and the Ancient Order of Druids in America(AODA) have university like education programs which require: a membership in the organization, structured curriculum completion, and an observed practicum by an initiated member of the organization.[17] [18] [19] There are various levels of completion that one can attain through these courses and each opens new responsibilities within a community as well as provides them with an avenue for additional respect and adherence. The separate orders are not mutually exclusive and not only communicate with each other but often members are encouraged to engage with several different organizations when they are creating new “seed groups” or “groves” of initiates. There is at least one well established community in Canada who meets regularly once a month and has dedicated itself to the preservation and appreciation of the maintained parklands in Calgary, Alberta. The Chinook Hills Grove are members of the OBOD.[20] Though these structured organizations exist, they account for an unknown percentage of practicing druids as many pursue their own form of Druidic in seclusion and still identify as druids.[21] The spiritual views of druids range throughout the spectrum of belief; some are strictly naturalist or atheist, while others tend towards agnostic, and still others are absorbed by the theology and cosmology of the spiritual connection with plants and animals that druidism instills.[22]

Technopaganism is a new addition to the Pagan traditions. It’s first mainstream observance and recognition came from an article in the mainstream tech magazine Wired in 1995. This article had some very satirical tones, but also some interesting observations and ultimately accepted that the experience recounted had significance for those who were involved. “Research into the composition of neopagan communities has found that a surprisingly high proportion of participants are drawn from technological backgrounds.”[23] This relation between pagans and technology could be the catalyst for this growing subsection of the pagan community.

““Computers are simply mirrors,” Pesce says. “There’s nothing in them that we didn’t put there. If computers are viewed as evil and dehumanizing, then we made them that way. I think computers can be as sacred as we are, because they can embody our communication with each other and with the entities – the divine parts of ourselves – that we invoke in that space.””[24]

Mark Pesce is the examined technopagan practitioner in the Wired article. This quote is quasi indicative of the beliefs that technopagans share. That technology not only is an extrapolation of the human collective consciousness, but is divine in and of itself. This belief that the cyberspace is the connective element between spirituality and reality is the core belief of the technopagan. The use of technology and interaction with it becomes the equivalent to prayer in Christian religions. There is also a cross-over between technopaganism and post/trans-humanist belief. This is the belief that using and incorporation of technology, humans have come to a point in their own existence that they can now guide or even change the course of their evolution.[25] Though trans-humanism and technopaganism are not mutually exclusive, trans-humanism provides an interesting extrapolation for technopagans in that through the trans-humanist philosophy there could be an equivalent to the Christian idea of heaven or the paganist myth of immortality through “magic”; if, in the future, the human consciousness could be passed into a technological vessel and retain self-awareness and the ability to manipulate that environment, then that space would become a programable virtual space for the entity to exist within and communicate from.

Paganism and Society           

The outlooks on paganist beliefs in Western European North America have been mostly negative and even considered it abhorrent. Wicca has the most documented stigmatisms associated with it. This mostly is associated with the “largely invented heretical diabolism persecuted in the Renaissance and Reformation… The popular notions that Pagan practitioners worship the devil, have obscene and orgiastic meetings…”.[26] In Montreal covens in Quebec, Canada there is also criticism of the linguistic barriers associated with the rituals and practices of a mostly francophone demographic as they are preformed almost exclusively in English.[27] Astaru have had their beliefs examined as exclusionary and bigoted specifically against gay men and transsexual individuals due to the term ergi and its traditional applications as well as racial exclusions which are prevalent in the folkish denominations.[28] [29] Druidism is associated with the “tree-hugger” mentality of the hippies of the 60’s and is criticized for the “impossibility” of this religion to be derivative of the Celtic practices that it associates with due to the lack of relics and derivative material from which it could be revived from due to their destruction during the roman occupation of the British Isles and later Christian occupation.[30] Technopaganism suffers from a lack of interest or dismissiveness in its belief system by contemporary academics. Reclusive devotees and a lack of hierarchical organization further obfuscates it and causes many to dismiss it as a faith.

Though these faiths have been traditionally demonized, discredited, or unobserved, they are experiencing growth. There are many factors that can be examined to explain this. The most influential three are: the divergence of the population from traditional religions, such as Christianity, to secularism, the exposure through romanticism of the origin cultures and belief structures that the revivalist religions are based on, and the introduction and acclimatization to different belief systems through new media.

As individuals no longer follow the religions that they were born into some seek out new faith, others abandon it all together, and others find that the doctrines no longer fit their personal narrative. In the study of Heathen growth, it was found that sixty-six percent of Heathens have had prior affiliation with Christianity, Agnostic, or Atheist beliefs before becoming Astaru; in Canada fifty-three percent of Heathens had been practicing for five or more years.[31] A study on the religious conversions of children raised in Pagan households showed “… that the children of Pagans very rarely convert to other religions – most who leave Paganism claim no religious affiliation.”[32] This retention and growth are anomalous with the research on traditional views of religious structures importance, as most Pagan religions worshippers exist outside of the centralized communities.[33] The small communities within these religions, covens/groves/moots, are specialized around the members who participate in them. The contexts and significance are personalized to their needs and perceptions.

Perceptions in the general population are becoming more inclusive to these Pre-Christian belief systems. Popularizations within the media of TV series and Movies like Buffy the Vampire Slayer in the 1990’s, True Blood in the 2000’s, The Craft, Vikings in 2010’s, and even the Marvel franchise are exposing large population bodies in the western world to the belief systems and mythological characters recognized by these religions. Though their accuracy is far from the actual practices or contexts that are present in the practice of these religions, the exposure stimulates interest and acceptance of these views. The increasing importance of environmentalism in politics and societal conscience lends the Druids reverence of nature credence and value. The increasing inclusion of technology and its impact on humanity and the world, combined with its continuing integration into the communication and daily rituals of individuals is conducive to the technopagan reality of its spiritual significance.

MMO’s (Massively Multiplayer Online (Game)) are very new integrations into society. Most are RPG (Role Playing Games) oriented, though with variations on sub genre’s and some existing outside of the RPG element all together. In one such game, WOW (World of Warcraft), the Church of the Holy Light exists and hosts over 800,000 members in its virtual congregation; it is an invented religion, fiction based, hyper real and exists alongside of several other religions within the game.[34] The other religions include but are not exclusive to: druidism, shamanism, and occult religions; these denominations expose players to “fictional” examples of these Pagan traditions.[35] The RP(roleplaying) elements of this game encourages players to create a character within the game world who exists separately of themselves and often they use this opportunity to interact with this fictional world with a religious worldview that they do not adhere to in reality; some of these players express that this has allowed them to become more understanding or even sympathetic to the religious choices that others have made, or even reevaluate their own beliefs.[36] This case study is indicative to the effect of new media on the perceptions of individuals when examining revivalist movements such as the ones discussed in this paper. Even though the religions in this virtual space are fictional, the impacts are evident. Overall the globalization of technology has probably had the most impact on the growth of Pagan religions.

Technology and its Impact on Paganism

Probably the most detrimental inhibition to the growth of Pagan devotions, when they were incepted in the 1960’s, was the scarcity of available information on the practices and restrictions in communication and finding a community or even other practitioners. Unless you were privileged enough to live in one of the major cities that the revivalist movements blossomed, were a part of the Freemason societies when the druidic divergence occurred, or were lucky enough to come across an occult magazine like Hectate’s Loom, your ability to adopt these practices were severely stunted. This changed with the arrival of the information era. The communicative avenues were a literal god(s)send for the technopagans and allowed for other Pagan communities to breach the difficulties associated with the vast distances that separated communities and the costs of producing, distributing, and subscribing to material correspondence. It allowed access to the global materials that revivalists needed to substantiate their ethos and access to the procurement of the materials that were essential to their rituals.

Convergent spiritual practices have been thoroughly examined though interactions of religious communities in an online environment; by being able to access multiple sources of practices and literature, engage with various different communities and mentors, examine different examples of ritual and engagement, and inform themselves of the availability and location of communal gatherings of similar practitioners, individuals are able to conform their religious practices to serve their individual spiritual needs.[37]  “… Online religious communities often function differently from those in conventional institutions…”[38]; because of this Pagan organizations are uniquely suited to the online environment as they exist outside of conventional institutions, it is conceivable to elude that they developed partially within the online environment and it intuitively shaped the communities that we see today.

Jenny Blain, when accounting her first personal experience of Oracular Seiðr, describes her interest and exploration of the concepts that she would be experiencing through research done through the internet and communication via email lists before attending the ritual.[39] This is not an uncommon introduction to Paganism. In Cragle’s study on Heathens sixty-eight percent of respondents indicated that there is no room for evangelism in their religion, twenty percent further indicated that they were selectively evangelist, confining the practice to family, friends, and close associates; though a surprising seventy-two percent said they were completely or mostly openly religious.[40] Relating this to Paganism in general most individuals who decide to initiate themselves within a Pagan tradition will have had some interaction with these online presences.

Social networks have been and are still an important resource for those who want to access these communities; in Pagan communities the internet is a sacred space or even a sacramental one, email lists, like the one used by Jenny Blain, are a communal space used to encourage, support, inform, and discuss religious discourse while also acting as a repository for myth and source material that creates a unique spiritual narrative, cohesion, and identity strived for by the community in each member.[41] Additionally, internal communities, such as the OBOD, use a closed network to retain their privacy and restrict access to the materials their community has developed during its existence. They also have effectively created an online education system with the use of online email mentorship and program registration.

Pagan religions have become global phenomena. OBOD claims over 10,000 members worldwide, Cragle’s data on heathenry was obtained from primarily North America but had respondents throughout Europe, and Wicca is recognized worldwide and is even often depicted in Japanese pop-culture such as manga and anime.[42] [43] The broad reach of these otherwise small, shy, and secluded communities can be attributed almost exclusively to the global communication network of the information era.

Conclusion

Canadians made up five percent of the total demographic of Cragle’s survey.[44] The total population of Canadian Pagans who openly provide their religious affiliation is growing exponentially in each household survey issued by the Canadian government. Through the last sixty years, the organized proponents of these faiths have developed secure structures through which they are now involving an increasing number of individuals. Influenced by popular media, global communication, and the moral, ethical, logical, mythological, interpretation, and freedom of belief these religions provide, the populations is becoming more accepting and appreciative of the values and motives of these revivalist institutions. Paganism is growing and will continue to do so; the lack of centralization or organization of a defined ethos will be to its benefit due to the inclusionary nature of these spiritual paths and their overlap with one another. Technology will continue to factor into their growth and expression. As these larger groups succeed, more Pagan revivals will grow and come into existence. High retention of children and the retention of converts within Pagan traditions has caused growth to remain exponential. While other religions face decline in the face of growing secularism, Paganism shows that it has prospered and has the potential to continue to do so.

[1] Canada, Government Of Canada Statistics. “2011 National Household Survey: Data tables – Religion (108) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey.” Located under the Other Religions heading.

[2] Reid, Síân. 2005. “Renovating the Broom Closet: Factors Contributing to the Growth of Contemporary Paganism in Canada.” Pomegranate 7, no. 2: pg136.

[3] Klassen, Chris. 2013. “The Role of Nature in the Construction of Ethics: A Study among Contemporary Pagans in Ontario, Canada.” Journal For The Study Of Religion, Nature & Culture 7, no. 1: pg52

[4] Klassen, Chris. 2013. “The Role of Nature in the Construction of Ethics: A Study among Contemporary Pagans in Ontario, Canada.” Journal For The Study Of Religion, Nature & Culture 7, no. 1: pg52

[5] Canada, Government Of Canada Statistics. “2011 National Household Survey: Data tables – Religion (108) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey.” Located under the Other Religions heading.

[6] Landstreet, Lynna. “A Brief History of the WCC and the Odyssean Tradition.” The Wiccan Church of Canada: History. 1997.

[7] Landstreet, Lynna. “A Brief History of the WCC and the Odyssean Tradition.” The Wiccan Church of Canada: History. 1997.

[8] Klassen, Chris. 2013. “The Role of Nature in the Construction of Ethics: A Study among Contemporary Pagans in Ontario, Canada.” Journal For The Study Of Religion, Nature & Culture 7, no. 1: pg51

[9] Blain, Jenny. 2002. Nine Worlds of Seid-Magic : Ecstasy and Neo-Shamanism in North European Paganism. London: Routledge, 2002. Pg89-92

[10] Blain, Jenny. 2002. Nine Worlds of Seid-Magic : Ecstasy and Neo-Shamanism in North European Paganism. London: Routledge, 2002. Pg12-14

[11] Blain, Jenny. 2002. Nine Worlds of Seid-Magic : Ecstasy and Neo-Shamanism in North European Paganism. London: Routledge, 2002. Pg10-12, 19-20, 27

[12] Cragle, Joshua Marcus. 2017. “Contemporary Germanic/Norse Paganism and Recent Survey Data.” Pomegranate 19, no. 1: 89-90.

[13] Klassen, Chris. 2013. “The Role of Nature in the Construction of Ethics: A Study among Contemporary Pagans in Ontario, Canada.” Journal For The Study Of Religion, Nature & Culture 7, no. 1: pg52

[14] The Bard, Dehm. “Druidcast Episode 1.” Druidcast – The Druid Podcast: Episode 1 (audio blog)

[15] Kirner, Kimberly D. 2015. “Pursuing the Salmon of Wisdom: The Sacred in Folk Botanical Knowledge Revival among Modem Druids.” Journal For The Study Of Religion, Nature & Culture 9, no. 4: 449

[16] The Bard, Dehm. “Druidcast Episode 1.” Druidcast – The Druid Podcast: Episode 1 (audio blog)

[17] “Frequently Asked Questions.” AODA.org – Frequently Asked Questions. Accessed November 19th, 2017. https://aoda.org/faq.html#13.

[18] “Frequently Asked Questions About the Course.” Order of Bards and Druids. September 25, 2015. Accessed November 19th, 2017. http://www.druidry.org/join/frequently-asked-questions-about-course.

[19] Kirner, Kimberly D. 2015. “Pursuing the Salmon of Wisdom: The Sacred in Folk Botanical Knowledge Revival among Modem Druids.” Journal For The Study Of Religion, Nature & Culture 9, no. 4: 457.

[20] Storm, Feather, and Amethyst BanDraoi. “Chinook Hills Druidry.” Chinook Hills Druidry. January 01, 1970. Accessed December 03, 2017. http://www.chinookhillsdruidry.org/.

[21] Kirner, Kimberly D. 2015. “Pursuing the Salmon of Wisdom: The Sacred in Folk Botanical Knowledge Revival among Modem Druids.” Journal For The Study Of Religion, Nature & Culture 9, no. 4: 451.

[22] [22] Kirner, Kimberly D. 2015. “Pursuing the Salmon of Wisdom: The Sacred in Folk Botanical Knowledge Revival among Modem Druids.” Journal For The Study Of Religion, Nature & Culture 9, no. 4: 454.

[23] Garner, Stephen. 2004. “Praying with machines: religious dreaming in cyberspace.” Stimulus: The New Zealand Journal Of Christian Thought & Practice 12, no. 3: 18

[24] Davis, Erik. “Technopagans.” Wired. July 01, 1995.

[25] Garner, Stephen. 2004. “Praying with machines: religious dreaming in cyberspace.” Stimulus: The New Zealand Journal Of Christian Thought & Practice 12, no. 3: 18

[26] Reid, Síân. 2005. “Renovating the Broom Closet: Factors Contributing to the Growth of Contemporary Paganism in Canada.” Pomegranate 7, no. 2: pg129-130.

[27] Lepage, Martin. 2013. “A Lokian Family: Queer and Pagan Agency in Montreal.” Pomegranate 15, no. 1/2: 83.

[28] Blain, Jenny. 2002. Nine Worlds of Seid-Magic : Ecstasy and Neo-Shamanism in North European Paganism. London: Routledge, 2002. Pg 111-141

[29] Cragle, Joshua Marcus. 2017. “Contemporary Germanic/Norse Paganism and Recent Survey Data.” Pomegranate 19, no. 1: 81-91.

[30] Kirner, Kimberly D. 2015. “Pursuing the Salmon of Wisdom: The Sacred in Folk Botanical Knowledge Revival among Modem Druids.” Journal For The Study Of Religion, Nature & Culture 9, no. 4: 449-451.

[31] Cragle, Joshua Marcus. 2017. “Contemporary Germanic/Norse Paganism and Recent Survey Data.” Pomegranate 19, no. 1: 94-95.

[32] Fennell, Julie, and Laura A. Wildman-Hanlon. 2017. “The children of converts: Beyond the first generation of contemporary Pagans.” Social Compass 64, no. 2: 302.

[33] Fennell, Julie, and Laura A. Wildman-Hanlon. 2017. “The children of converts: Beyond the first generation of contemporary Pagans.” Social Compass 64, no. 2: 303.

[34] Schaap, Julian, and Stef Aupers. 2017. “‘Gods in World of Warcraft exist’: Religious reflexivity and the quest for meaning in online computer games.” New Media & Society 19, no. 11: 1745.

[35] Schaap, Julian, and Stef Aupers. 2017. “‘Gods in World of Warcraft exist’: Religious reflexivity and the quest for meaning in online computer games.” New Media & Society 19, no. 11: 1748.

[36] Schaap, Julian, and Stef Aupers. 2017. “‘Gods in World of Warcraft exist’: Religious reflexivity and the quest for meaning in online computer games.” New Media & Society 19, no. 11: 1750 – 1755.

[37] Campbell, Heidi A. 2013. “Religion and the Internet: A microcosm for studying Internet trends and implications.” New Media & Society 15, no. 5: 682-684

[38] Campbell, Heidi A. 2013. “Religion and the Internet: A microcosm for studying Internet trends and implications.” New Media & Society 15, no. 5: 685

[39] Blain, Jenny. 2002. Nine Worlds of Seid-Magic : Ecstasy and Neo-Shamanism in North European Paganism. London: Routledge, 2002. Pg. 75

[40] [40] Cragle, Joshua Marcus. 2017. “Contemporary Germanic/Norse Paganism and Recent Survey Data.” Pomegranate 19, no. 1: 106-109.

[41] Campbell, Heidi. 2005. “Considering spiritual dimensions within computer-mediated communication studies.” New Media & Society 7, no. 1: 118-126.

[42] Kirner, Kimberly D. 2015. “Pursuing the Salmon of Wisdom: The Sacred in Folk Botanical Knowledge Revival among Modem Druids.” Journal For The Study Of Religion, Nature & Culture 9, no. 4: 451

[43] Cragle, Joshua Marcus. 2017. “Contemporary Germanic/Norse Paganism and Recent Survey Data.” Pomegranate 19, no. 1: 79-80.

[44] Cragle, Joshua Marcus. 2017. “Contemporary Germanic/Norse Paganism and Recent Survey Data.” Pomegranate 19, no. 1: 79-80.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

“Frequently Asked Questions.” AODA.org – Frequently Asked Questions. Accessed November 19th, 2017. https://aoda.org/faq.html#13.

“Frequently Asked Questions About the Course.” Order of Bards and Druids. September 25, 2015. Accessed November 19th, 2017. http://www.druidry.org/join/frequently-asked-questions-about-course.

Aupers, Stef. 2002. “The Revenge of the Machines: On Modernity, Digital Technology and Animism.” Asian Journal of Social Science 30, no. 2: 199-218.

Blain, Jenny. 2002. Nine Worlds of Seid-Magic: Ecstasy and Neo-Shamanism in North European Paganism. London: Routledge, 2002.

Campbell, Heidi. 2005. “Considering spiritual dimensions within computer-mediated communication studies.” New Media & Society 7, no. 1: 110-134.

Campbell, Heidi. 2007. “Who’s Got the Power? Religious Authority and the Internet.” Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication 12, no. 3: 1043-1062.

Campbell, Heidi A. 2013. “Religion and the Internet: A microcosm for studying Internet trends and implications.” New Media & Society 15, no. 5: 680-694.

Canada, Government of Canada Statistics. “2011 National Household Survey: Data tables – Religion (108) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey.” Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. February 14, 2017. Accessed November 13, 2017.

http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/dt-td/Rp-eng.cfm?LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=0&PID=105399&PRID=0&PTYPE=105277&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2013&THEME=95&VID=0

Charbonneau, Marisol. 2007. “The Melting Cauldron: Ethnicity, Diversity, and Identity in a Contemporary Pagan Subculture.” Pomegranate 9, no. 1: 5-21.

Clarke, Peter B. 2006. Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements. London: Routledge, 2006.

Cragle, Joshua Marcus. 2017. “Contemporary Germanic/Norse Paganism and Recent Survey Data.” Pomegranate 19, no. 1: 77-116.

Davis, Erik. “Technopagans.” Wired. July 01, 1995. Accessed November 13, 2017. https://www.wired.com/1995/07/technopagans/.

Fennell, Julie, and Laura A. Wildman-Hanlon. 2017. “The children of converts: Beyond the first generation of contemporary Pagans.” Social Compass 64, no. 2: 288-306

Garner, Stephen. 2004. “Praying with machines: religious dreaming in cyberspace.” Stimulus: The New Zealand Journal of Christian Thought & Practice 12, no. 3: 16-22

Kirner, Kimberly D. 2015. “Pursuing the Salmon of Wisdom: The Sacred in Folk Botanical Knowledge Revival among Modem Druids.” Journal for The Study Of Religion, Nature & Culture 9, no. 4: 448-482.

Klassen, Chris. 2013. “The Role of Nature in the Construction of Ethics: A Study among Contemporary Pagans in Ontario, Canada.” Journal for The Study Of Religion, Nature & Culture 7, no. 1: 49-64.

Landstreet, Lynna. “A Brief History of the WCC and the Odyssean Tradition.” The Wiccan Church of Canada: History. 1997. (Accessed November 26, 2017. http://www.wcc.on.ca/history.html.)

Lepage, Martin. 2013. “A Lokian Family: Queer and Pagan Agency in Montreal.” Pomegranate 15, no. 1/2: 79-100.

Reid, Síân. 2005. “Renovating the Broom Closet: Factors Contributing to the Growth of Contemporary Paganism in Canada.” Pomegranate 7, no. 2: 128-140.

Schaap, Julian, and Stef Aupers. 2017. “‘Gods in World of Warcraft exist’: Religious reflexivity and the quest for meaning in online computer games.” New Media & Society 19, no. 11: 1744-1760.

Storm, Feather, and Amethyst BanDraoi. “Chinook Hills Druidry.” Chinook Hills Druidry. January 01, 1970. Accessed November 26, 2017. http://www.chinookhillsdruidry.org/.

The Bard, Dehm. “Druidcast Episode 1.” Druidcast – The Druid Podcast: Episode 1 (audio blog), June 01, 2007. Accessed November 26, 2017.

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